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By Jürgen Habermas

El concepto de "presuposición idealizante" ocupa un lugar destacado en l. a. construcción de los angeles "teoría de l. a. acción comunicativa". En este ensayo, que constituye una importante aportación a su teoría, Habermas explica y desarrolla este concepto, reinterpretándolo, a los angeles luz de su análisis pragmático-formal, como una versión de las "ideas" kantianas una vez liberadas de su sentido transcendental. El texto ofrece una explicación genealógica de los vínculos que unen el planteamiento kantiano con cuatro presuposiciones pragmáticas inevitables en los angeles acción comunicativa: un mundo objetivo común, los angeles responsabilidad de los sujetos racionales, l. a. validez incondicional de las pretensiones de verdad y de corrección normativa, y l. a. necesaria dependencia de justificación discursiva. Habermas destaca que l. a. "inevitabilidad" de estas presuposiciones en los angeles acción comunicativa debe entenderse más en el sentido de Wittgenstein que en el de Kant, es decir, no en el sentido trascendental de las condiciones universales y necesarias de l. a. experiencia posible, sino en el sentido gramatical de un sistema de lenguaje y un mundo de l. a. vida en el que nos hemos socializado y que, en cualquier caso, "para nosotros" es insuperable. A l. a. luz de esos nexos genealógicos se hacen patentes los puntos cruciales en los que los angeles filosofía analítica ha rechazado los angeles herencia de las "ideas" de l. a. razón pura de Kant. Pero, a su vez, mediante un análisis que examina los angeles crítica de Frege al psicologismo, el principio de caridad interpretativa de Davidson, l. a. recepción crítica de Wittgenstein por parte de Dummett, y l. a. concepción del entendimiento como un intercambio discursivo de razones que propone Brandom, Habermas muestra que l. a. tradición analítica acaba llegando a unas descripciones normativas de los angeles práctica lingüística muy similares a las de su pragmática formal, de raíces confesadamente kantianas.

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Those who exited then stepped on his body on their way out. Unable to bear this humiliation, da Costa shot himself several days later. It is impossible to know what impression this sad episode made on the young Spinoza, who was eight at the time and must have been aware in some way of these goings-on. Doubtless, though, the Spinoza’s Understanding and Understanding Spinoza 19 harsh treatment of da Costa for his beliefs carried echoes for Spinoza as he went through his own process of excommunication only 16 years later.

According to Spinoza’s system, all reality flows with strict necessity Spinoza’s Understanding and Understanding Spinoza 31 from the nature of God. With the geometrical method, Spinoza captures the structure of this reality by deducing philosophical conclusions about reality from definitions which express the nature of God. Spinoza’s life reflects his commitment to intelligibility. Although he offers a brief biographical sketch at the beginning of his Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect, in which he credits his rationalist investigation of the world as promising to lead to unalloyed joy, one must turn to other historical sources to begin to understand the contours of Spinoza’s life.

This purity is most evident in his commitment to the principle that each fact has an explanation, that for each thing that exists there is an explanation that suffices for one to see why that thing exists. Although Spinoza does not himself use the term, this principle is known as the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR). Leibniz is more often associated with this principle, but, as will become apparent throughout this book, Spinoza employs the PSR more systematically, perhaps, than has ever been done in the history of philosophy.

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