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By Roger Narayan; Paolo Colombo; Michael Halbig; Sanjay Mathur; American Ceramic Society

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Additional info for Advances in bioceramics and porous ceramics V : a collection of papers presented at the 36th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 22-27, 2012, Daytona Beach, Florida

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Fu, M. N. Rahaman, B. S. Bal, L. F. Bonewald, K. F. Brown, Silicate, Borosilicate, and Borate Bioactive Glass Scaffolds with Controllable Degradation Rate for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications. II. In vitro and in vivo biological evaluation, J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 95A, 172-179(2010). Rahaman, Kinetics and Mechanisms of the conversion of silicate (45S5), Borate, and Borosilicate glasses to hydroxyapatite in dilute phosphate solution, J Mater Sei Mater Med, 17, 583-96 (2006). Bonewald, Bioactive Glass in Tissue Engineering, Acta Biomater, 7, 2355-2373 (2011).

Before applying any external load to a typical zirconia-porcelain crown, depending on cooling process, geometry and relative thickness of layers, a residual stresses from -100 MPa to +100 MPa is expected along the thickness of zirconia layer [6]. If the zirconia layer is in compression before applying external tensile load, initially the compressive residual stress might be compensated and only further tensile loading would result in phase transformation. It is here that the meta-stable tetragonal zirconia relaxes the tensile stress by performing phase transformation and likely delays crack initiation.

Figure 6 Mosaic pattern of 2D XRD frames along the cross section from the inside surface to the porcelain interface that cover the/ = 0° to 20° segment of diffraction cones The ratio of area under three monoclinic peaks to the tetragonal peaks was used as an indication of phase transformation percentage. For the monoclinic phase, the sum of areas under the (-231), (140), (-411) peaks, and for the tetragonal phase the area under the (004), (220) and (-411) peaks were considered. The result of this phase transformation percentage is shown in Figure 8 along with the result of the residual stress measurement.

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