Download African American Urban History since World War II by Kenneth L. Kusmer, Joe W. Trotter PDF

By Kenneth L. Kusmer, Joe W. Trotter

Historians have dedicated unusually little cognizance to African American city historical past of the postwar interval, in particular in comparison with past many years. Correcting this imbalance, African American city background considering the fact that global conflict II good points an exhilarating mixture of professional students and clean new voices whose mixed efforts give you the first accomplished overview of this significant subject.            the 1st of this volume’s 5 groundbreaking sections makes a speciality of black migration and Latino immigration, studying tensions and alliances that emerged among African american citizens and different teams. Exploring the demanding situations of residential segregation and deindustrialization, later sections take on such issues because the genuine property industry’s discriminatory practices, the move of middle-class blacks to the suburbs, and the effect of black city activists on nationwide employment and social welfare rules. one other staff of individuals examines those issues throughout the lens of gender, chronicling deindustrialization’s disproportionate effect on girls and women’s top roles in events for social switch. Concluding with a suite of essays on black tradition and intake, this quantity absolutely realizes its aim of linking neighborhood adjustments with the nationwide and worldwide methods that have an effect on city category and race relatives.

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This age distribution doubled the demographic effect of the exodus. It meant that the South was losing—and the other regions were gaining—not just the migrant generation, but also their unborn children and grandchildren. The Irvins’ experience also represented a fairly typical family migration configuration. Frank had gone west first to check things out, following aunts and cousins who had moved to Oakland before the war. Dona and the children joined him soon after. Intact young families of this sort were very common.

As college graduates, she and Frank were part of a tiny minority. 7 percent of adult former southerners living in the North or West had any sort of college experience. 8 percent had graduated from high school. 20 Even though they were much better educated than most who left the South, the Irvins and Belle Alexander illustrate something important about the Second Great Migration: the exodus represented a brain drain from the black South. 21 Moreover, migrants were, on average, better educated than southerners who remained behind.

These income comparisons need to be put in context. The same data also show that migrants struggled with labor markets that offered only limited opportunities to African Americans. If anyone had headed north expecting to escape severe racial discrimination, they would indeed have been disappointed. The clearest way to demonstrate the powerful effects of race in the labor markets of the North and West is to compare the jobs and incomes of black southern migrants with those of white southern migrants, who shared many of the background factors (mostly rural southern origins, mostly poorly educated) and who were participating in their own great migration out of the South.

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