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By Philoponus

In a single of the main unique books of past due antiquity, Philoponus argues for the Christian view that topic should be created by means of God out of not anything. It wishes no previous topic for its production. even as, Philoponus transforms Aristotle's notion of leading subject as an incorporeal 'something - i do know no longer what' that serves because the final topic for receiving extension and traits. to the contrary, says Philoponus, the final word topic is extension. it truly is third-dimensional extension with its particular dimensions and any features unspecified. furthermore, such extension is the defining attribute of physique. accordingly, thus far from being incorporeal, it's physique, and in addition to being top topic, it really is shape - the shape that constitutes physique. This makes use of, yet fullyyt disrupts, Aristotle's conceptual equipment. eventually, in Aristotle's scheme of different types, this extension isn't really to be labeled less than the second one classification of volume, yet below the 1st type of substance as a considerable volume. This quantity includes an English translation of Philoponus' statement, distinctive notes and creation, and a bibliography.

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Everything that is destroyed’, says [Proclus]: is destroyed by its own evil. } But the entire race of gods, being unreceptive of evil, is also unreceptive of change. 74 If the entire race of gods, being unreceptive of evil, is also unreceptive of change, anything which cannot possibly be unchanging could not be a god. So since Plato says75 that everything perceptible comes to be and perishes and never truly is, and declares for this reason that the heaven and the cosmos, being perceptible, also [come to be and perish]76 (for of existing things only the most divine have the property of remaining the same and unchanging and the bodily nature is not of this order but is always numbered in the ranks of change), and since Proclus himself, standing by this tenet of Plato’s, states, as we observed earlier,77 that the power of the cosmos is limited because no body partakes of infinite power, that limited power is perishable, and that this is how the cosmos is by its very nature – granting all of this, was it more reasonable [on his part] to put himself in conflict with himself, with Plato and with the truth78 and to argue from the fact that the cosmos is being called a god that it is not changeable79 and Chapter 9, Section 5 27 therefore has not come to be?

5. ‘Everything that is destroyed’, says [Proclus]: is destroyed by its own evil. } But the entire race of gods, being unreceptive of evil, is also unreceptive of change. 74 If the entire race of gods, being unreceptive of evil, is also unreceptive of change, anything which cannot possibly be unchanging could not be a god. So since Plato says75 that everything perceptible comes to be and perishes and never truly is, and declares for this reason that the heaven and the cosmos, being perceptible, also [come to be and perish]76 (for of existing things only the most divine have the property of remaining the same and unchanging and the bodily nature is not of this order but is always numbered in the ranks of change), and since Proclus himself, standing by this tenet of Plato’s, states, as we observed earlier,77 that the power of the cosmos is limited because no body partakes of infinite power, that limited power is perishable, and that this is how the cosmos is by its very nature – granting all of this, was it more reasonable [on his part] to put himself in conflict with himself, with Plato and with the truth78 and to argue from the fact that the cosmos is being called a god that it is not changeable79 and Chapter 9, Section 5 27 therefore has not come to be?

And] again: since each particular thing that comes to be comes to be out of something [already] in existence, they on that account hold that the universe too, if it comes to be, comes to be out of something already in existence (proüpokeimenos). Therefore,110 since nature is the creator of particular things and God of the whole, or universe, and since nature, which creates them, pre-exists each particular thing and the things which are brought [into being] are later (deuteros) in time than nature, which brings them [into being], its creator will 25 341,1 5 10 15 20 25 342,1 5 10 15 32 20 25 343,1 5 10 15 20 25 344,1 5 Chapter 9, Section 10 therefore also pre-exist the cosmos, even if he has created it out of something that is ungenerated (ex ontos agenêtou).

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